On May 31, 1862, as Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’ Army of the Potomac closed in on Richmond, Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston attempted to overwhelm two Federal corps isolated south of the Chickahominy River near the Seven Pines crossroads, seven miles from the capital. The assaults, though not well coordinated, succeeded in driving back the Union corps and inflicted heavy casualties. Reinforcements arrived, and both sides fed in more troops. When elements of a third Union corps crossed the rain-swollen river, the Federal position held. Johnston was seriously wounded during the action, and command of the Confederate army devolved temporarily to Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith. On June 1, the Confederates renewed their assaults against the Federals who had brought up more reinforcements but made little headway. Both sides claimed victory. That evening, Jefferson Davis ordered Gen. Robert E. Lee to take command of the army.